refers to the ability to sustain the necessary background posture to efficiently carry out a skilled task, such as reading
or handwriting. The ability to stabilize the trunk and neck underlies the
ability to develop efficient eye and hand movements.
Proximal Stability to both the shoulder and pelvic girdles
this refers to the muscle control of the shoulders and pelvic. they are required to be in control before proper use of upper and lower extremeties.
Core trunk stability
This refers to the musculature that supports the core of your body both abdominal and back muscles.
BALANCE AND ENDURANCE ACTIVITIES
The following activities are examples of activities which work on body awareness, endurance, core body control, hand-eye coordination, upper body strength for fine motor tasks, tactile desensitization, motor sequencing, and complex bilateral coordination. Please supervise these activities.
The following activities are examples of activities which work on balance, coordination, strengthening, endurance, concentration, and foot-eye coordination. Please supervise these activities.
Old fashioned wheelbarrow walking… one child places hands on floor and another individual grab hold of his ankles and holds them up. With elbows and knees extended, the child uses his hands on the floor to walk forward. Works on upper body strength for fine motor tasks, tactile desensitization, improved body awareness, and complex bilateral coordination
Include activities such as riding tricycles around cones, climbing over a stack of gym mats, walking on a balance beam or on a line on the floor (may tape a jump rope to the floor to imitate a ‘high wire’), jumping over objects or jumping from one carpet square to another and then another like ‘lily pads in a pond’, scooter boards around cones, kicking balls around cones while running, etc.
Ideas for setting up the obstacle course:
Bean Bag toss games allow practice at throwing over handed and underhanded toward a target. Targets may include an area designated by cones or paper, a ball pit type pool, buckets, hoola hoops or other sizable containers. Make it competitive and children will generally enjoy the activity (esp. as teams)
Red Rover: Focuses on running, arm strength
Duck-Duck-Goose: Focuses on quick positional transitions (involving balance, strength and flexibility), and running
· Trampoline: used primarily to develop jumping skills.
· Sit and Spin: In sitting encourage turning self in both directions, start slow and go faster as skill improves. This will develop trunk control and balance skills.
· Swing The suspended swing is often used for sensory purposes, but can also have a gross motor component. It can be used for developing balance and equilibrium skills in various positions. It is best to have one child at a time on the swing when you are working to develop balance skills. If the child is fearful provide support as needed and swing very gently. As they gain confidence increase the arc of movement and take away the physical support. The net swing can be used in lying or sitting and again is good for both strengthening and developing balance skills.
· Hoppity Balls: Generally good for balance, lower extremity and trunk strengthening, and endurance.
· Scooter Boards:
very good for strengthening arms and back extensors. Try having child hold a hula hoop or a rope while you pull the child forward as an alternative to pulling self forward with arms.
You can tie a thick rope about 3 feet off the floor attaching it to something solid at each end. Have the student lie on his back on the scooter board and pull self along.
· Exercise Balls: There are a variety of activities that can be done on a therapy ball.
prone (on tummy): rocking in all directions can be stimulating, encouraging the child to raise his head and strengthen neck and back extensors. Rocking down to floor or to the side can help facilitate protective extension.
supine (on back): this can be a scary position for a child, so should be used carefully. You can have a child perform modified sit ups in this position.
sitting: excellent position for working on head and trunk control. Bounce or rock child to stimulate balance responses. Remember to rock forward/backward and diagonally as well as side to side.
· Balance Beam: Walking a balance beam helps a child change his walking pattern from a more childlike one with a wide base of support to a more adult pattern that encourages them to rotate hips so the child’s knees and feet point straight ahead. The beam also challenges upright balance. Ways to use the balance beam:
walk with one foot on the beam and one foot off.
walk with hand held assistance one foot in front of the other.
Things to remember – set up the balance beam so your child feels stable on it and is comfortable using it. A wider beam is easier to use initially. You can even use a wide board placed on a floor. Provide hand support and when child is ready, encourage him to do it by himself. A child can also support himself by holding a wall. It is good practice to let the child go barefoot as they use the beam. If the child is reluctant to walk across it, let him stand on it momentarily. Use a variety of balance beam activities in the community as well. You can use railroad ties or other wooden borders at playgrounds, parks, etc. Another activity is to raise one end of the beam so the child goes up and down an incline. If the beam is too difficult to start with, use masking or electrical tape on the floor to create pathways to walk on.
· Slide: A child can work on stair climbing as well as having a great sensory experience sliding down. Though we encourage our kids to sit on their bottom to slide, we should really give them the opportunity to slide on their tummy, back, forward, and backward. Make sure they are safe and take turns however.
· Tunnel: The tunnel encourages crawling which strengthens the upper extremities, but has other applications. For a highly distractible child, this activity can be calming and used to help increase focus. If added to an obstacle course it can improve motor planning. For a child who cannot walk or crawl appropriately, they can lie on their back and scoot through the tunnel or they can pull with their arms and push with their legs – combat crawl – through. You can put a child on a scooter board and an adult can pull them through it. Children with visual impairments get good feedback in a tunnel. Compressing the tunnel so it is shorter can encourage a reluctant child to crawl through.
· Body Image Activities:
Connect palm to palm with child and have them mirror movements.
Lie on back with eyes closed. Now raise your arm, touch your elbow to your knee, touch your toes, make a circle in the air with your foot.
Keep a balloon in the air
1. Jump up (in place) and forward (progressively)
2. Jump over a low object
3. Stand on tip toes with hands on hips
4. Stand on tip toes with hands out to side, then overhead
5. Stand on one foot
6. Make forward and backward bridges with the body
7. Walk with baby steps, giant steps on feet, on heels and on toes
8. Put a small ball in a stocking – have student lie on back – dangle the stocking overhead and have the student try to hit it with each hand and then with their feet.
9. Roll a ball back and forth while sitting down – gradually increase the distance.
10. Bounce and catch a soft 6in playground ball, then catch it when thrown (can count 1, 2, 3 for timing)